Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition

Nid Year Notes All terms
49 1 1982
Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer. , editors. National Academy Press; 1982.

Expert panel, deliberating on relationship between diet and cancer; Recommended keeping fats to 30% of calories Recommended using fruits and vegetables, not dietary supplements. Did not find conclusive evidence that dietary fiber prevented colorectal cancer.

"The scientific data do not provide a strong basis for establishing fat intake at precisely 30 percent of total calories. Indeed, the data could be used to justify an even greater reduction."

The Harvard Nurses Study was launched as a result. Also, low-fat milk. Also led to explosion of nutrient supplements industry, despite warning.

NCI funded this paper. NCI began spending money on nutrient supplement studies. NS don't work. More than $1B spent on clinical trials.

Director of NCI went to Kellogg company, which began fortifying cereals with dietary fiber to reduce colon cancer risk.

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
50 2 1977

Committee chaired by Senator George McGovern; recommended maximum of 35% fat

1) increase carbohydrate consumption to account for 55 to 60% of calorie intake;
2) reduce overall fat consumption from 40% to about 30% of calorie intake;
3) reduce saturated fat consumption to account for about 10% of total calorie intake; and balance with poly-unsaturated and monosaturated fats, which should account for about 10% of energy intake each;
4) reduce cholesterol consumption to about 300 mg a day;
5) reduce sugar consumption by almost 40% to account for about 15% of total energy intake;
6) reduce salt consumption by about 50 to 85% to approximately three grams per day."

Dr. Hegsted Press Conference: "The risks associated with eating this diet (rich in meat, other sources of fat, sugar, and refined carbohydrates) are demonstrably large. The question to be asked is not why should we change our diet, but why not?... Ischemic heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension are the diseases that kill us. They are epidemic in our population. We cannot afford to temporize. We have an obligation to inform the public of the correct food choices. To do less is to avoid our responsibility."

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Fasting and Eating for Health, The China Study - Book
51 3 1986
Carroll KK, Braden LM, Bell JA, Kalamegham R. Fat and cancer. Cancer. 1986;58(8 Suppl):1818-25. Abstract

Observational Study. Chart displays total fat intake (g/day - x-axis), against cases of breast cancer per 100,000 people per year. The more fat, the more cancer. The correlation was extremely strong for animal fat, and extremely weak for plant fat. (this fact went mostly unreported).

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
54 4 1992

No relationship between dietary fat and fiber, and cancer; Yet as %fat decreases, %protein increased.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Nurses Health Study
122 5 2002

Trends in the Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Prevalence of Obesity for Adults Aged 20-74 Years
1960: 13.4% Obese
1970: 14.5%
1980: 15.0%
1990: 23.3
2000: 30.9

ChCh01, ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Similar, The China Study - Book
123 6 1998

Obese person more likely to become obese adult

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
125 7 1999
Colditz GA. Economic costs of obesity and inactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(11 Suppl):S663-7. Abstract

Direct medical costs for obesity defined as body mass index greater than 30, in 1995 dollars, total 70 billion dollars. By 2002, $100 billion. Also, additional $30-$40 billion out-of-pocket on weight loss plans.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
126 8 1996

EDITOR,—Britain is failing to meet targets that have been set for reducing obesity. 1 One of the aims of the Health of the Nation strategy is to reduce the percentages of men and women who are obese to 6% and 8%, respectively, by 2005, 2 but the Health Survey for England 1994 shows that the prevalence of obesity had increased to 13.2% among men and 16.0% among women by 1994. 3 This increase is probably partly due to a reduction in physical activity; the importance of the composition of the diet is not …

In the groups that did not eat meat, mean body mass index was lower among those who had adhered to their diet for five or more years than among those who had adhered to their diet for a shorter period. This association with duration of diet suggests that the differences in body mass index are largely due to the qualitative differences between the diets of the four groups.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
127 9 1998
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
128 10 1998

Vegetarians are thinner than meat eaters. This may be partly due to a higher intake of dietary fibre, a lower intake of animal fat, and only in men a lower intake of alcohol.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
129 11 1991

Intervention study; pre-Western-contact Hawaiian diet for 21 days. 3 weeks, 17 lbs lost.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
130 12 1988
Dwyer JT. Health aspects of vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48(3 Suppl):712-38. Abstract
ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
131 13 1980
Bergan JG, Brown PT. Nutritional status of "new" vegetarians. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980;76(2):151-5.
ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
132 14 1975
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
133 15 1970
ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
135 16 1999

Intervention Study. 16 lbs lost over 12 weeks
"The use of a low-fat, vegetarian diet in patients with NIDDM was associated with significant reductions in fasting serum glucose concentration and body weight in the absence of recommendations for exercise."

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture, Duplicate, The China Study - Book
136 17 1998

Intervention Study. 24 lbs lost after 1 year

ChCh06, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
137 18 1995

Intervention Study. 2 to 5 lbs lost after 12 days

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
138 19 1983

Intervention Study. 10 lbs lost in 3 weeks

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
139 20 1983

time-energy displacement: more time eating, more volume, but fewer calories. Satiety induced by unrefined complex carbohydrates

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
140 21 1973

whole-foods plant-based dieters consume fewer calories, larger volume, spend more time eating

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
141 22 1999

Chinese are slimmer despite consuming more calories. More exercise, and possibly increased energy expenditure associated with non-postprandial basal metabolism.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
142 23 1988

Thermogenesis: Production of body heat during metabolism. TC Campbell describes the author's conclusions as badly misinterpreted.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
143 24 1986

The lower body weight of vegetarians despite a higher caloric intake is of considerable interest.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
144 25 2000

Before new methods to improve exercise adherence are found, the role of prescribed physical activity in prevention of weight gain remains modest. Excersing 15 - 45 minutes per day --> 11-18 lbs lighter.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
145 26 2000

Up to 45% of kids' dx are Type 2. (It's no longer called "adult-onset.")

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
146 27 1999

Seventh Day Adventist study: half the rate of diabetes and obesity among vegetarians as compared to "moderate" meat eaters (who eat 3 servings of beef/week, and <1 of fish or poultry. nut eating non-vegans lived longer than vegans

significant associations between beef consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men [relative risk (RR) = 2.31 for subjects who ate beef > or =3 times/wk compared with vegetarians], significant protective associations between nut consumption and fatal and nonfatal IHD in both sexes (RR approximately 0.5 for subjects who ate nuts > or =5 times/wk compared with those who ate nuts <1 time/wk), and reduced risk of IHD in subjects preferring whole-grain to white bread.

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Fall Weekend Immersion 2011, The China Study - Book
147 28 1985

half the rate of diabetes and obesity among vegetarians

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
148 29 1980

In 18 days, diet alone could lower total cholesterol level by 32%.

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
149 30 1971

excess weight strongest association with diabetes across 11 countries in Central and South America and Asia.

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
152 31 1997
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Esselstyn Lecture, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
153 32 1951

Plummeting of disease during the war

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Esselstyn Lecture, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
154 33 1995

Coronary disease could be prevented, arrested, or even reversed by maintaining total serum cholesterol levels below 150 mg/dL. (Dean Ornish also showed that CVD can be reversed. ) "This is the longest study of minimal fat nutrition used in combination with cholesterol-lowering drugs conducted to date, and our finding of a mean decrease of arterial stenosis [blockage] of 7.0% is greater than any reports in previous research." The ones who dropped out of the program had 10 new coronary events.

ChCh01, ChCh05, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Duplicate, Esselstyn Lecture, The China Study - Book, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
155 34 2006

Kuller quoted during panel discussion: All males over 65 years of age, exposed to a traditional Western lifestyle, have cardiovascular disease and should be treated as such.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
156 35 1999

Patients who used Atorvastatin (drug treatment) to lower cholesterol had fewer hospitalizations for chest pain, and fewer heart attacks than those who underwent angioplasty and standard post-op care.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
159 36 2006

"Low-fat diets don't work." But they didn't go on a low-fat diet! Average of 1 pound of weight loss over 8 years. Even with little reduction, did show some results, comparable to chemotherapy.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
162 37 1999
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Esselstyn Lecture, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
182 38 2007
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
183 39 1993
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
184 40 1994

Prospective case-control study; TEE to measure aortic plaques. More plaque, more strokes. During bypass surgery, plaque becomes an embolus in the bloodstream. If the patient dies during surgery, the plaque may be found in the brain upon autopsy.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
185 41 2002

Prospective study. CABG patients at higher risk for stroke and encephalopathy can be identified before surgery. 1 in 10 will have a stroke or encephalopathy (delirium or coma).

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Esselstyn Lecture
186 42 2001

Patients over 70, walk 20 meters. Slowest had greatest difference in mortality. Strokes. "Motor Strip" Infarc, little strokes in the motor strip affect arms and legs. Exercise can grow the brain (hippocampus-memory; frontal lobes-executive function.) 3-4 times a week, working up a sweat.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
187 43 1999

Of 144 human studies that showed statistically significant associations of fruits and vegetables with total cancer, ALL 144 showed a PROTECTIVE EFFECT. NO studies confirmed a protective effect of animal foods. 17 of 20 studies found that exercise protects against colon cancer.

ChCh04, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Cancer, The China Study - Book
188 44 1986
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
189 45 2002

77% of soldiers (avg age 22) killed in the Korean war had heart disease.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, DPYCCH03, Esselstyn Lecture, Chow Down, Disease-Proof Your Child
190 46 2001

image of impressive reversal of CHD, and lowered blood cholesterol

ChCh05, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, EatRightAmerica, Esselstyn Lecture, The China Study - Book, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
191 47 1999

0 coronary events during 12 years of followup in 17/18 patients

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Esselstyn Lecture, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
219 48 1990

Three ways to measure aflatoxin, in 65 communities. (17 communities in all other aflatoxin studies, combined) Big range of cancer mortality rates. Chemist at JHU School of Medicine. Urine samples measured metabolite. and found no relationship. By this time, agencies had already advised that there WAS an association. But highly significant relationship with diet/cholesterol. Higher cholesterol, higher cancer Predisposed to hepatitis B, higher cancer. Cancer was largely a nutritional and viral disease.

JHU chemist wouldn't co-author the paper, because it impacted regulations international trade. He and his colleagues had an association with industry to produce an analytical methodology to analyze for presence of aflatoxin. Moreover, they had an interest in aflatoxin being regarded as an important carcinogen. They also had a chemical which they thought could be used as a drug in order to reduce aflatoxin-exposed people. The proposed drug was toxic to the liver.

Running high risk of causing more deaths. "Unforeseen health problems" resulted from the study. Project abandoned after many millions spent. That particular episode illustrated the way we think about science. Specific chemical approach, rather than nutrition.

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
294 49 2008

Vegans had lower DHA level than omnivores, but no mention of health. Vegans had 10:1 ratio. Ideal is 1:1. Clearly, not a healthy vegan diet. The more fat, the more competition for enzymes that convert ALA to DHA. Based on patient recall, so, likely bias. Half the vegetarians were eating dairy+egg.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
295 50 2007
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
296 51 2006

Long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fats do not have a clear effect on total mortality, combined cardiovascular events, or cancer.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
297 52 2007

supplements increased pro-inflammatory ARA levels.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition
298 53 2002

"Disease mongering turns healthy people into patients" (Now we're treating risk factors.)

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
299 54 2005
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
300 55 1995
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
301 56 2004

calls for advising patients on lifestyle changes.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
302 57 2006

U or J phenomenon of mortality;

pulse pressure increased by medications - normal is 40 or less

reduced diastolic associated with heart attacks.

diastolic below 60 had 3x the heart attack rate and dramatically increases risk of irregular heart beat

beta blockers increase stroke risk and overall mortality

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture, Getaway2011, important, Ti Sano 2013
303 58 2006

"A diet low in sodium, high in potassium, and rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, cereal fiber, and fatty fish will likely reduce the incidence of stroke."

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
304 59 1998

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Aggressively-treated Type 1 diabetics had higher rates of heart disease, weight gain, high BP, LDL, and TG

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
305 60 1996

Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study in Glycemia Control and Complications in NIDDM: Type 2 diabetics with history of heart disease had an increased risk of death upon treatment.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
306 61 2000

Diabetics with a history of heart attacks, and treated with pills and/or insulin had nearly twice the death rate as those treated with diet. Those treating with diet alone had equivalent death rate to those without diabetes.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
307 62 2006

Reduces risk factors (obesity, insulin resistance)

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
308 63 2005
Carey J, Barrett A. Is Heart Surgery Worth It? BusinessWeek, July. 2005;18.
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
309 64 1995

"Since the benefit achieved is marginal, the harm caused is substantial, and the costs incurred are enormous, we suggest that public funding for breast cancer screening in any age group is not justifiable."

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
310 65 2001

In 2000, we reported that there is no reliable evidence that screening for breast cancer reduces mortality. As we discuss here, a Cochrane review has now confirmed and strengthened our previous findings. The review also shows that breast-cancer mortality is a misleading outcome measure.* Finally, we use data supplemental to those in the Cochrane review to show that screening leads to more aggressive treatment. *(Uncertain causes of death were often ascribed to breast cancer, not to radiation). See also Hughes NS.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture, Cancer, Getaway2010
311 66 1997
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
312 67 2005
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture
313 68 2003

The US food production system uses about 50% of the total US land area, 80% of the fresh water, and 17% of the fossil energy used in the country

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition