A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.

Notes: 

Review of 23 interventional trials show dramatic reduction in all-cause mortality by those consuming nuts and seeds

Consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts 5 or more times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of Energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (especially small dense LDL) in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.

Sudden Cardiac Death (the most common cause of death in people with no known heart disease) constitutes almost 40 percent of all heart disease deaths

The most proven and effective intervention to reducing risk of sudden cardiac death is the regular consumption of seeds and nuts in the diet.

the magnitude of the cholesterol-lowering effect was shown to be 25% greater than would be predicted based on the fatty acid profiles of the test diets studied (2). Therefore, the possible mechanisms whereby nuts may improve lipid profiles do not rely exclusively on the beneficial action of unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and MUFA) but may include the effects of fiber, micronutrients such as vitamin E and C, folic acid, copper, magnesium, plant protein (e.g., arginine), plant sterols, and phenolic components.

"Large drop in LDL cholesterol, especially the most dangerous small LDL. Raise LDL. Reduce CRP and plaque adhesion molecules. Increase arginine. Restore vascular elasticity."

- increase arginine
- restore vascular elasticity
- recue c-reactive protein and plaque adhesion
- raise hdl
- large drop in ldl especially most dangerous type

TitleA systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsMukuddem-Petersen J, Oosthuizen W, Jerling JC
JournalThe Journal of nutrition
Volume135
Issue9
Pagination2082-9
Date Published2005 Sep
ISSN0022-3166
Keywordsdiet, Humans, Lipids, Nuts
Abstract

The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50-100 g/d), 2 peanut (35-68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40-84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50-100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts > or = 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.

Alternate JournalJ. Nutr.
PubMed ID16140880
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