Neonicotinoid contamination of global surface waters and associated risk to aquatic invertebrates: a review.

Notes: 

standard invertebrate test species is on of the more tolerant. Other species are more vulnerable. Specific toxicity ranges among crustaceans and insects. As low as .005 or up to 80 mm/l.

Neonic concentration in maryland streams at levels of concern for aquatic insects (Mayfly, Caddisfly). Food, economically important and recreational fishing.

Current U.S. EPA bengmark is 1.05 for longer term chronic 35 microgames / L (ppb) for acute short term

Proposed new WQ values .035 ppb (30x less EPA and 0.2 ppb for acute short term (18x less than EPA.

TitleNeonicotinoid contamination of global surface waters and associated risk to aquatic invertebrates: a review.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsMorrissey CA, Mineau P, Devries JH, Sanchez-Bayo F, Liess M, Cavallaro MC, Liber K
JournalEnvironment international
Volume74
Pagination291-303
Date Published2015 Jan
ISSN1873-6750
KeywordsAnimals, Guanidines, Imidazoles, Insecticides, Invertebrates, Nitro Compounds, Risk, Water Pollutants, Chemical, Water Quality
Abstract

Neonicotinoids, broad-spectrum systemic insecticides, are the fastest growing class of insecticides worldwide and are now registered for use on hundreds of field crops in over 120 different countries. The environmental profile of this class of pesticides indicate that they are persistent, have high leaching and runoff potential, and are highly toxic to a wide range of invertebrates. Therefore, neonicotinoids represent a significant risk to surface waters and the diverse aquatic and terrestrial fauna that these ecosystems support. This review synthesizes the current state of knowledge on the reported concentrations of neonicotinoids in surface waters from 29 studies in 9 countries world-wide in tandem with published data on their acute and chronic toxicity to 49 species of aquatic insects and crustaceans spanning 12 invertebrate orders. Strong evidence exists that water-borne neonicotinoid exposures are frequent, long-term and at levels (geometric means=0.13μg/L (averages) and 0.63μg/L (maxima)) which commonly exceed several existing water quality guidelines. Imidacloprid is by far the most widely studied neonicotinoid (66% of the 214 toxicity tests reviewed) with differences in sensitivity among aquatic invertebrate species ranging several orders of magnitude; other neonicotinoids display analogous modes of action and similar toxicities, although comparative data are limited. Of the species evaluated, insects belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera appear to be the most sensitive, while those of Crustacea (although not universally so) are less sensitive. In particular, the standard test species Daphnia magna appears to be very tolerant, with 24-96hour LC50 values exceeding 100,000μg/L (geometric mean>44,000μg/L), which is at least 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the geometric mean of all other invertebrate species tested. Overall, neonicotinoids can exert adverse effects on survival, growth, emergence, mobility, and behavior of many sensitive aquatic invertebrate taxa at concentrations at or below 1μg/L under acute exposure and 0.1μg/L for chronic exposure. Using probabilistic approaches (species sensitivity distributions), we recommend here that ecological thresholds for neonicotinoid water concentrations need to be below 0.2μg/L (short-term acute) or 0.035μg/L (long-term chronic) to avoid lasting effects on aquatic invertebrate communities. The application of safety factors may still be warranted considering potential issues of slow recovery, additive or synergistic effects and multiple stressors that can occur in the field. Our analysis revealed that 81% (22/27) and 74% (14/19) of global surface water studies reporting maximum and average individual neonicotinoid concentrations respectively, exceeded these thresholds of 0.2 and 0.035μg/L. Therefore, it appears that environmentally relevant concentrations of neonicotinoids in surface waters worldwide are well within the range where both short- and long-term impacts on aquatic invertebrate species are possible over broad spatial scales.

DOI10.1016/j.envint.2014.10.024
Alternate JournalEnviron Int
PubMed ID25454246
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