Lifetime menstrual activity--indicator of breast cancer risk.


Lifetime menstrual activity is an indicator of breast cancer risk.

TitleLifetime menstrual activity--indicator of breast cancer risk.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1993
AuthorsRautalahti M, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Palmgren J, Haukka J, Heinonen OP
JournalEuropean journal of epidemiology
Date Published1993 Jan
KeywordsAdult, Age Factors, Aged, Breast Neoplasms, Case-Control Studies, Contraceptives, Oral, Estrogen Replacement Therapy, Female, Finland, Humans, Logistic Models, Menopause, Menstruation, Middle Aged, Questionnaires, Risk Factors, Smoking, Time Factors

A case-control study of 67 cases of breast cancer and 157 controls was conducted to investigate the role of different behavioral, reproductive, and hormonal factors and to develop a unifying indicator of breast cancer risk. The results confirm previous reports of the influence of smoking on the risk of breast cancer. Age at menarche was found to be a risk factor among the premenopausal women. Late age at menopause was suggestive of an increase in risk. Long use of oral contraceptive or estrogen supplementation were risk-enhancing both pre- and postmenopausally. Lifetime duration of menstrual activity (LMA) combines age at menarche and menopause, parity, and lactation into a biologically plausible model. Our findings concerning LMA support its role as a determinant of breast cancer.

Alternate JournalEur. J. Epidemiol.
PubMed ID8472797
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