ChCh04

Nidsort icon Year Notes All terms
49 1 1982
Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer. , editors. National Academy Press; 1982.

Expert panel, deliberating on relationship between diet and cancer; Recommended keeping fats to 30% of calories Recommended using fruits and vegetables, not dietary supplements. Did not find conclusive evidence that dietary fiber prevented colorectal cancer.

"The scientific data do not provide a strong basis for establishing fat intake at precisely 30 percent of total calories. Indeed, the data could be used to justify an even greater reduction."

The Harvard Nurses Study was launched as a result. Also, low-fat milk. Also led to explosion of nutrient supplements industry, despite warning.

NCI funded this paper. NCI began spending money on nutrient supplement studies. NS don't work. More than $1B spent on clinical trials.

Director of NCI went to Kellogg company, which began fortifying cereals with dietary fiber to reduce colon cancer risk.

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
50 2 1977

Committee chaired by Senator George McGovern; recommended maximum of 35% fat

1) increase carbohydrate consumption to account for 55 to 60% of calorie intake;
2) reduce overall fat consumption from 40% to about 30% of calorie intake;
3) reduce saturated fat consumption to account for about 10% of total calorie intake; and balance with poly-unsaturated and monosaturated fats, which should account for about 10% of energy intake each;
4) reduce cholesterol consumption to about 300 mg a day;
5) reduce sugar consumption by almost 40% to account for about 15% of total energy intake;
6) reduce salt consumption by about 50 to 85% to approximately three grams per day."

Dr. Hegsted Press Conference: "The risks associated with eating this diet (rich in meat, other sources of fat, sugar, and refined carbohydrates) are demonstrably large. The question to be asked is not why should we change our diet, but why not?... Ischemic heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension are the diseases that kill us. They are epidemic in our population. We cannot afford to temporize. We have an obligation to inform the public of the correct food choices. To do less is to avoid our responsibility."

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Fasting and Eating for Health, The China Study - Book
187 3 1999

Of 144 human studies that showed statistically significant associations of fruits and vegetables with total cancer, ALL 144 showed a PROTECTIVE EFFECT. NO studies confirmed a protective effect of animal foods. 17 of 20 studies found that exercise protects against colon cancer.

ChCh04, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Cancer, The China Study - Book
198 4 2003
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
200 5 2002

effects of Atkins diet: constipation, bad breath, headache, hair loss, and increased amount of calcium excreted in the urine.

ChCh04, ChCh10, The China Study - Book
201 6 2000
Noakes M, Clifton PM. Weight loss and plasma lipids. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000;11(1):65-70. Abstract
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
202 7 1998

Death rate from coronary heart disease 17x higher among American men than rural Chinese men. death from breast cancer 5x higher than rural Chinese. Extremely low CHD in SW Chinese.

ChCh04, ChCh05, DPYCCH03, The China Study - Book, Disease-Proof Your Child
203 8 1993

lower menarch, higher menopause yields higher breast cancer risk

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
204 9 1993

Lifetime menstrual activity is an indicator of breast cancer risk.

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
205 10 1993
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
207 11 1990
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
208 12 1986
Carroll KK, Braden LM, Bell JA, Kalamegham R. Fat and cancer. Cancer. 1986;58(8 Suppl):1818-25. Abstract

Breast cancer correlates with animal fat, not plant fat.

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
209 13 1982

consuming animal-based protein increase blood cholesterol

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
210 14 1981

Atlas of cancer mortality conducted on 96% of the country (880 million citizens). Geographic trends for certain types of cancer. Close to 90% in same ethnic group. Sometimes 100-fold difference between cancer rates in various counties. (In US typically 2-3 fold.) (Long-Island studies just 10-20% higher.) What accounts for cancer differences? Why less common than in the U.S.?

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
211 15 1981

Report presented to Congress: Genetics determines 2-3% of total cancer risk; Cancer incidence varied between countries

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
212 16 1979

Average blood cholesterol of Americans is 215 mg/dL (our low values near high for rural Chinese)

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
213 17 1977

Cancer incidence varied between countries

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
214 18 1969
Higginson J. Present trends in cancer epidemiology. Proc Can Cancer Conf. 1969;8:40-75.

Cancer incidence varied between countries

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
215 19 1968
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
216 20 2004
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
217 21 1992
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
219 22 1990

Three ways to measure aflatoxin, in 65 communities. (17 communities in all other aflatoxin studies, combined) Big range of cancer mortality rates. Chemist at JHU School of Medicine. Urine samples measured metabolite. and found no relationship. By this time, agencies had already advised that there WAS an association. But highly significant relationship with diet/cholesterol. Higher cholesterol, higher cancer Predisposed to hepatitis B, higher cancer. Cancer was largely a nutritional and viral disease.

JHU chemist wouldn't co-author the paper, because it impacted regulations international trade. He and his colleagues had an association with industry to produce an analytical methodology to analyze for presence of aflatoxin. Moreover, they had an interest in aflatoxin being regarded as an important carcinogen. They also had a chemical which they thought could be used as a drug in order to reduce aflatoxin-exposed people. The proposed drug was toxic to the liver.

Running high risk of causing more deaths. "Unforeseen health problems" resulted from the study. Project abandoned after many millions spent. That particular episode illustrated the way we think about science. Specific chemical approach, rather than nutrition.

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
220 23 1990
ChCh04, ChCh08, The China Study - Book
222 24 1973
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
318 25 1990

- One of the strongest predictors of disease (III) was blood cholesterol. As blood cholesterol levels decreased many cancers decreased. Animal protein increased LDL; plant protein decreased LDL. (Most aware of saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol; some might mention soy or fiber, but few aware that animal protein has anything to do with blood cholesterol levels.)
Colon cancers not higher, even though almost no dairy is consumed, and calcium levels are moderate.

ChCh04, ChCh08, The China Study - Book
320 26 1992

Two clusters: disease of poverty (nutritional extravagance), or affluence (nutritional adequecy and poor sanitation)

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
321 27 1983

plant-based protein decreases the amount of cholesterol made by the body. Animal protein more strongly correlated with blood cholesterol levels than saturated fat, or dietary cholesterol.

ChCh04, ChCh05, The China Study - Book
322 28 1983
Carroll KK. Dietary proteins and amino acids-their effects on cholesterol metabolism. Animal and Vegetable Protein in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, NY USA. 1983:9-17.

consuming animal-based protein increase blood cholesterol

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
323 29 1983
Terpstra AH, Hermus RJ, West CE. Dietary protein and cholesterol metabolism in rabbits and rats. Animal and vegetable protein in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. New York: Alan R. Liss. 1983.

consuming animal-based protein increase blood cholesterol in rabbits and rats

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
324 30 1988
General US. The Surgeon General’s Report on Nutrition and Health. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 1988.
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
325 31 1989
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
326 32 1973
Higginson J, Muir CS. Cancer epidemiology. Cancer Medicine’Eds Holland JF and Frei E. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. 1973:241-306.
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
327 33 1999
Rein ML. Nutrition: A Key to Good Health. , editors. Information Plus (TX); 1999.
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
328 34 2000
Atkins RC, Buff S. Dr. Atkins' Age-defying Diet Revolution. , editors. St. Martin's Press; 2000.
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
329 35 1988

5% casein rats exercised on a wheel twice as much as 20% casein-fed rats.

ChCh04, ChCh06, The China Study - Book
564 36 2002

$30 million study; Two counties had rates 10-20% higher than the state average. cover story; (contrast: China, some parts 100 times higher)

ChCh04, Cancer
804 37 1999
(Firm IP, Wylie, Tex.). Nutrition, a key to good health. , editors. Information Plus; 1999.

In 1996: 42% ate cakes, cookies, pastries or pies; only 10% ate any dark green vegetables. Potatoes, lettuce, and canned tomatoes accounted for healf of total vegetable consumption. Americans consumed 32 teaspoons of added sugars per day in 1996.

ChCh04, The China Study - Book