The China Study - Book

Nid Year Notes All terms
2 1 2002
Anderson RN. Deaths: leading causes for 2000. National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. 2002;50(16):1-85. Abstract

Medical treatment is the 3rd leading cause of death in the US, following heart disease, and cancer.

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
3 2 2000
Starfield B. Is US health really the best in the world? JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2000;284(4):483-5.

225,400 deaths per year. U.S. way behind other developed countries.

Adverse drug effects (at normal doses) 106,000
nosocomial infection 80,000
unnecessary surgery 12,000
medication errors 74,000, and other preventable hospital errors 20,000. [This summary incorporates additional information from journals featured in the China Study]

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
6 3 1998
Bender R, Trautner C, Spraul M, Berger M. Assessment of excess mortality in obesity. American journal of epidemiology. 1998;147(1):42-8. Abstract
ChCh01, The China Study - Book
8 4 1969

We eat out more than ever

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
10 5 1998

106,000 die from adverse drug events.

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
11 6 1998

7400 die from medication errors.

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
13 7 1994
ChCh01, The China Study - Book, China Study - Journal Article
14 8 1994
Campbell TC, Junshi C. Diet and chronic degenerative diseases: perspectives from China. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1994;59(5 Suppl):1153S-1161S. Abstract

diet and disease

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
15 9 1993
ChCh01, The China Study - Book, China Study - Journal Article
16 10 1993
ChCh01, The China Study - Book, China Study - Journal Article
17 11 1992
Leape LL. Unnecessary surgery. Annual review of public health. 1992;13:363-83.

12,000 die from unnecessary surgery

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
18 12 1991

biomarkers for breast cancer.

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
20 13 1990

Prevention and Reversal. Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression of even severe coronary atherosclerosis after only 1 year, without use of lipid-lowering drugs. [See also Esselstyn]

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
21 14 1970

Philippine children consumed aflatoxin from moldy peanut butter AF metabolites were measured in the urine. Highest liver cancer, in areas of highest AF consumption.

ChCh01, ChCh02, The China Study - Book
22 15 2011
CDC National Diabetes Fact Sheet. , editors. Atlanta, Georgia; 2011.

Diabetes outcomes: Heart disease and stroke, Hypertension, Blindness and eye problems, Kidney disease, Nervous system disorders, Amputations, Dental disease, Complications of pregnancy, Other complications. • Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death based on U.S. death certificates in 2007. This ranking is based on the 71,382 death certificates in 2007 in which diabetes was the underlying cause of death. Diabetes was a contributing cause of death in an additional 160,022 death certificates for a total of 231,404 certificates in 2007 in which diabetes appeared as any-listed cause of death.
• Diabetes is likely to be underreported as a cause of death. Studies have found that about 35% to 40% of decedents with diabetes had it listed anywhere on the death certificate and about 10% to 15% had it listed as the underlying cause of death.
• Overall, the risk for death among people with diabetes is about twice that of people of similar age but without diabetes.
Overall, the risk for death among people with diabetes is about twice that of people of similar age but without diabetes.
Estimated diabetes costs in the United States, 2007
Total (direct and indirect)
$174 billion
1/3 don't know they have it.

ChCh01, ChCh07, The China Study - Book
23 16 2011

CVD accounted for 33.6% (813, 804) of deaths in 2007. 76.4 million Americans have hypertension.

ChCh01, The China Study - Book
24 17 1974
ChCh02, The China Study - Book
25 18 1968

Rats given aflatoxin. 100% of rats fed high protein (20%) got liver cancer or precursor lesions. 0% on low protein diet! See also Youngman studies.

ChCh02, ChCh03, The China Study - Book
27 19 1961

Peanuts are often contaminated with aflotoxin. (Aflotoxin causes liver cancer in rats.)

ChCh02, The China Study - Book
28 20 1973

Stillings, BR: Protein efficiency ratio and value;

Jalil ME and Tahir WM (FAO staffers) "World supply of plant proteins" Plant protein yields "poor health, and low productivity in man."

ChCh02, The China Study - Book
29 21 1963
TC C, JK L, RG W, et al. Utilization of biuret by ruminants. J. Animal Science. 1963.

Research to increase supply of meat.

ChCh02, The China Study - Book
31 22 1967
ChCh02, The China Study - Book
33 23 1992

Turn foci development on, or off, depending on protein consumption. Earlier foci initiation imprinted a kind of cellular memory. China Study: "In simple terms, the body holds a grudge." 100 to 0: low-protein alive, high protein rats dead. Foci development a good proxy for tumor development

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
34 24 1997

Mice with HBV gene to form tumors only form the tumor when protein consumption is high (similar to chemical carcinogen)

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
35 25 1997

In rat studies, aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma is substantially prevented by decreasing the intake of animal based protein (casein)

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
40 26 1981

Genetics determines only 2 - 3% of risk. The report was submitted to U.S. Congress

The China Study - Book
41 27 1981

Death rates of 12 different cancers. N = 880 million citizens (96% of the country). Great variation by county suggests lifestyle differences, not genetics.

The China Study - Book
42 28 1998

Wide range of cancer rates in different counties in China. (by an order of magnitude.) Calorie intake higher in China than average American, yet BMI issue much lower

The China Study - Book, China Study - Journal Article
49 29 1982
Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer. , editors. National Academy Press; 1982.

Expert panel, deliberating on relationship between diet and cancer; Recommended keeping fats to 30% of calories Recommended using fruits and vegetables, not dietary supplements. Did not find conclusive evidence that dietary fiber prevented colorectal cancer.

"The scientific data do not provide a strong basis for establishing fat intake at precisely 30 percent of total calories. Indeed, the data could be used to justify an even greater reduction."

The Harvard Nurses Study was launched as a result. Also, low-fat milk. Also led to explosion of nutrient supplements industry, despite warning.

NCI funded this paper. NCI began spending money on nutrient supplement studies. NS don't work. More than $1B spent on clinical trials.

Director of NCI went to Kellogg company, which began fortifying cereals with dietary fiber to reduce colon cancer risk.

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
50 30 1977

Committee chaired by Senator George McGovern; recommended maximum of 35% fat

1) increase carbohydrate consumption to account for 55 to 60% of calorie intake;
2) reduce overall fat consumption from 40% to about 30% of calorie intake;
3) reduce saturated fat consumption to account for about 10% of total calorie intake; and balance with poly-unsaturated and monosaturated fats, which should account for about 10% of energy intake each;
4) reduce cholesterol consumption to about 300 mg a day;
5) reduce sugar consumption by almost 40% to account for about 15% of total energy intake;
6) reduce salt consumption by about 50 to 85% to approximately three grams per day."

Dr. Hegsted Press Conference: "The risks associated with eating this diet (rich in meat, other sources of fat, sugar, and refined carbohydrates) are demonstrably large. The question to be asked is not why should we change our diet, but why not?... Ischemic heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension are the diseases that kill us. They are epidemic in our population. We cannot afford to temporize. We have an obligation to inform the public of the correct food choices. To do less is to avoid our responsibility."

ChCh04, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Fasting and Eating for Health, The China Study - Book
61 31 2010
ChCh01, The China Study - Book
62 32 1989
Intolerable Risk: Pesticides in our Children's Food. New York: National Resources Defense Council; 1989.

Chemical carcinogen

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
86 33 Submitted
Food Safety Issues II. NRDC Report and Alar. UC Davis Environmental Toxicology Newsletter. Submitted;9.
ChCh03, Pesticides, The China Study - Book
87 34 1996

sodium nitrite, meat preservative adds pink color and taste to hot dogs, bacon, and canned meat. Used since the 1920's.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
88 35 1970

nitrite produces nitrosamines in our bodies.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
89 36 1999
Ninth ROC rocks the boat. Report on Carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(1):A17.

nitrite produces nitrosamines, which are "reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens."

ChCh03, Related, The China Study - Book
90 37 2001
Ninth Report on Carcinogens. Washington, DC; 2001.
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
91 38 1979
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
92 39 1978

But doses were very high, would take a very long time to consume the equivalent.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
93 40 1967

Nitrosamine causes cancer, the more nitrosamine, the more cancer.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
94 41 1972

"Noting the possible relationship between high fat intake and heart disease, Nader branded the 15 billion hot dogs consumed annually in the country among 'America's deadliest missiles.'"

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
95 42 1979

Nitrite promotes lymphoma incidence in rats.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
96 43 1974
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
97 44 1973
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
98 45 1973
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
99 46 1972

enzyme activity modified by level of protein consumption. On low-protein diets, cells multiplied more slowly.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
100 47 1982
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
101 48 1980
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
102 49 1978

On low-protein diet: enzyme activity reduced

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
103 50 1977
ChCh03, The China Study - Book
104 51 1976

The lower the protein intake, the lower the number of aflotoxin-DNA adducts.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
105 52 1970

On low-protein diet: less aflotoxin entered the cell

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
106 53 1970

quantity of critical components of relevant enzymes was reduced

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
107 54 1987

Low protein diet could override the cancer-causing effect of the aflatoxin carcinogen.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
108 55 1982

Measure foci development and number: "Foci development was almost entirely dependent on how much protein was consumed, regardless of how much aflatoxin was consumed."

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
109 56 1981

On low-protein diet: fewer aflotoxin-DNA adducts were formed.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
110 57 1980

measuring "foci," the precuror clusters of cells that grow into tumors--predictive of tumor development.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
122 58 2002

Trends in the Age-Adjusted and Age-Specific Prevalence of Obesity for Adults Aged 20-74 Years
1960: 13.4% Obese
1970: 14.5%
1980: 15.0%
1990: 23.3
2000: 30.9

ChCh01, ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Similar, The China Study - Book
123 59 1998

Obese person more likely to become obese adult

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
124 60 1998
The China Study - Book
125 61 1999
Colditz GA. Economic costs of obesity and inactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(11 Suppl):S663-7. Abstract

Direct medical costs for obesity defined as body mass index greater than 30, in 1995 dollars, total 70 billion dollars. By 2002, $100 billion. Also, additional $30-$40 billion out-of-pocket on weight loss plans.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
126 62 1996

EDITOR,—Britain is failing to meet targets that have been set for reducing obesity. 1 One of the aims of the Health of the Nation strategy is to reduce the percentages of men and women who are obese to 6% and 8%, respectively, by 2005, 2 but the Health Survey for England 1994 shows that the prevalence of obesity had increased to 13.2% among men and 16.0% among women by 1994. 3 This increase is probably partly due to a reduction in physical activity; the importance of the composition of the diet is not …

In the groups that did not eat meat, mean body mass index was lower among those who had adhered to their diet for five or more years than among those who had adhered to their diet for a shorter period. This association with duration of diet suggests that the differences in body mass index are largely due to the qualitative differences between the diets of the four groups.

Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
127 63 1998
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
128 64 1998

Vegetarians are thinner than meat eaters. This may be partly due to a higher intake of dietary fibre, a lower intake of animal fat, and only in men a lower intake of alcohol.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
129 65 1991

Intervention study; pre-Western-contact Hawaiian diet for 21 days. 3 weeks, 17 lbs lost.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
130 66 1988
Dwyer JT. Health aspects of vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48(3 Suppl):712-38. Abstract
ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
131 67 1980
Bergan JG, Brown PT. Nutritional status of "new" vegetarians. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980;76(2):151-5.
ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
132 68 1975
Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
133 69 1970
ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
135 70 1999

Intervention Study. 16 lbs lost over 12 weeks
"The use of a low-fat, vegetarian diet in patients with NIDDM was associated with significant reductions in fasting serum glucose concentration and body weight in the absence of recommendations for exercise."

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, McDougall Lecture, Duplicate, The China Study - Book
136 71 1998

Intervention Study. 24 lbs lost after 1 year

ChCh06, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
137 72 1995

Intervention Study. 2 to 5 lbs lost after 12 days

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
138 73 1983

Intervention Study. 10 lbs lost in 3 weeks

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
139 74 1983

time-energy displacement: more time eating, more volume, but fewer calories. Satiety induced by unrefined complex carbohydrates

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
140 75 1973

whole-foods plant-based dieters consume fewer calories, larger volume, spend more time eating

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
141 76 1999

Chinese are slimmer despite consuming more calories. More exercise, and possibly increased energy expenditure associated with non-postprandial basal metabolism.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
142 77 1988

Thermogenesis: Production of body heat during metabolism. TC Campbell describes the author's conclusions as badly misinterpreted.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
143 78 1986

The lower body weight of vegetarians despite a higher caloric intake is of considerable interest.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
144 79 2000

Before new methods to improve exercise adherence are found, the role of prescribed physical activity in prevention of weight gain remains modest. Excersing 15 - 45 minutes per day --> 11-18 lbs lighter.

ChCh06, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
146 80 1999

Seventh Day Adventist study: half the rate of diabetes and obesity among vegetarians as compared to "moderate" meat eaters (who eat 3 servings of beef/week, and <1 of fish or poultry. nut eating non-vegans lived longer than vegans

significant associations between beef consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men [relative risk (RR) = 2.31 for subjects who ate beef > or =3 times/wk compared with vegetarians], significant protective associations between nut consumption and fatal and nonfatal IHD in both sexes (RR approximately 0.5 for subjects who ate nuts > or =5 times/wk compared with those who ate nuts <1 time/wk), and reduced risk of IHD in subjects preferring whole-grain to white bread.

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Fall Weekend Immersion 2011, The China Study - Book
147 81 1985

half the rate of diabetes and obesity among vegetarians

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
148 82 1980

In 18 days, diet alone could lower total cholesterol level by 32%.

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
149 83 1971

excess weight strongest association with diabetes across 11 countries in Central and South America and Asia.

ChCh07, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, The China Study - Book
150 84 1985

Those who adhere to high-carb, high-fiber diet gain long-term cholesterol decrease; levels remained low during 4-year study period.

ChCh07, The China Study - Book
154 85 1995

Coronary disease could be prevented, arrested, or even reversed by maintaining total serum cholesterol levels below 150 mg/dL. (Dean Ornish also showed that CVD can be reversed. ) "This is the longest study of minimal fat nutrition used in combination with cholesterol-lowering drugs conducted to date, and our finding of a mean decrease of arterial stenosis [blockage] of 7.0% is greater than any reports in previous research." The ones who dropped out of the program had 10 new coronary events.

ChCh01, ChCh05, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Duplicate, Esselstyn Lecture, The China Study - Book, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
187 86 1999

Of 144 human studies that showed statistically significant associations of fruits and vegetables with total cancer, ALL 144 showed a PROTECTIVE EFFECT. NO studies confirmed a protective effect of animal foods. 17 of 20 studies found that exercise protects against colon cancer.

ChCh04, ChCh08, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, Cancer, The China Study - Book
190 87 2001

image of impressive reversal of CHD, and lowered blood cholesterol

ChCh05, Certificate in Plant-based Nutrition, EatRightAmerica, Esselstyn Lecture, The China Study - Book, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease
192 88 2010

1998: Male 47% chance of cancer; Female: 38%
2011: Male 44%; Female 38%;

ChCh01, Cancer, The China Study - Book
193 89 1990

Animal (not plant) protein promotes cancer

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
194 90 1986

reactions combine to increase cancer

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
195 91 1985

Animal (not plant) protein promotes cancer

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
196 92 1985

(Paper was featured on the cover.)

ChCh03, The China Study - Book
198 93 2003
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
200 94 2002

effects of Atkins diet: constipation, bad breath, headache, hair loss, and increased amount of calcium excreted in the urine.

ChCh04, ChCh10, The China Study - Book
201 95 2000
Noakes M, Clifton PM. Weight loss and plasma lipids. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000;11(1):65-70. Abstract
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
202 96 1998

Death rate from coronary heart disease 17x higher among American men than rural Chinese men. death from breast cancer 5x higher than rural Chinese. Extremely low CHD in SW Chinese.

ChCh04, ChCh05, DPYCCH03, The China Study - Book, Disease-Proof Your Child
203 97 1993

lower menarch, higher menopause yields higher breast cancer risk

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
204 98 1993

Lifetime menstrual activity is an indicator of breast cancer risk.

ChCh04, The China Study - Book
205 99 1993
ChCh04, The China Study - Book
206 100 1991

Disease onset began above 12% protein.

ChCh03, The China Study - Book